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Students will learn the basic concepts of fluid mechanisms: hydraulic mechanism, pneumatic mechanisms, hydraulic and pneumatic circuit. Become familiar with the composition of hydraulic and pneumatic circuits, basic hydraulic and pneumatic components, their functions, structures, characteristics using the circuit. Students will learn to count instances hydraulic and pneumatic circuits in steady state and solve the starting and braking hydraulic actuators. Learn to design simple hydraulic and pneumatic circuits and compile them on trainer in the laboratory. Students acquire basic knowledge of the operation, maintenance, measurement and diagnostics of hydraulic and pneumatic equipment.


In the subject "Fluid Mechanisms", students deal with function, structure, properties and applications of fluid, i.e. hydraulic and pneumatic mechanisms. The subject is divided into the following sections: general introduction, basic calculations of fluid mechanisms, elements of fluid systems, their construction, functions and characteristics, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and transmissions, including ways of their control, application of fluid mechanisms. The exercise is focused on calculations of fluid mechanisms and laboratory measurements.

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester




FOJTÁŠEK, K., HRUŽÍK, L., BUREČEK, A., STONAWSKI, E., DVOŘÁK, L., VAŠINA, M.: Fluid Mechanisms - Hydraulic Mechanisms, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2022, 227 p. Download.

FOJTÁŠEK, K., HRUŽÍK, L., DVOŘÁK, L, BUREČEK, A., STONAWSKI, E., VAŠINA, M.: Fluid Mechanisms - Practical Tasks and Basics of Pneumatics, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 2022, 167 p. Download.

EXNER, H., FREITAG, R., GEIS, H. et al:. The Hydraulics Trainer Volume 1, Basic Principles and Components of Fluid Technology. Mannesmann Rexroth AG, Lohr am Main, 1991. p. 344. ISBN 3-8023-0266-4. Read free for 30 days. Available in VSB central library and study room. The Hydraulics Trainer Volume 2, (proportional & servo valve technology).

GÖTZ, W.: Hydraulics. Theory and Applications. Ditzingen, Germany: OMEGON, 1998. 291 s. ISBN 3-980-5925-3-7.

YUKEM KOGYO Co. Ltd.: Basic Hydraulics and Components. Tokyo, 2006. 97 p.  Download.

FESTO: Hydraulics Basic Level. Textbook. Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, Denkendorf, 2003. 236 p. Download.

EWALD, R. et al.: Proportional and Servo-valve Technology. Lohr am Main, Germany: Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003. 300 p.

HEHN, H. et al.: Fluid Power Troubleshooting. New York : Marcel Dekker. 1995. 647 p. ISBN 0-8247-9275-0.

Knowel: Browse - Mechanics & Mechanical Engineering - Machine Design - Hydraulics and Pneumatics

DODDANNAVAR, RAVI BARNARD, ANDRIES. (2005). Practical Hydraulic Systems - Operation and Troubleshooting for Engineers and Technicians. Elsevier. Online version available at.

MANRING, N., D.:. Hydraulic Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons. 2005. Online version available at.

PARR, A.: Hydraulics and Pneumatics: A Technician’s and Engineer’s Guide, 1998, Elsevier, 2nd Edition, ISBN-13:978-0-7506-4419-9.

PARR, A.: Hydraulics and Pneumatics: A Technician’s and Engineer’s Guide, 2011, Elsevier, 3rd Edition, ISBN-13: 978-0-08-096674-8.

Google search: many different outputs (images, videos etc.)

Questions to exam

1. Basics of hydromechanics - Pascal´s law, Law for pressure propagation, Equation of continuity, laminar and turbulent flow, major (local) and minor pressure drops, Bernoulli´s equation.

2. Fluid mechanisms - advantages, disadvantages, applications.

3. Fluid mechanisms - energy transfer (principle), basic principle of hydraulic systems (figure and description).

4. Fluids in systems - their purpose in systems, types, applications.

5. Hydrostatic converters - types, purpose, ideal converters (equations).

6. Hydrostatic converters - real converters (equations), efficiencies.

7. Basic characteristics of real rotary converters.

8. Rotary hydraulic pumps - types, basic principles, advantages, and disadvantages.

9. Rotary hydraulic motors - types, basic principles, advantages, and disadvantages.

10. Rotary actuators - types, basic principles, advantages, and disadvantages.

11. Hydraulic cylinders - types, basic principles, advantages, and disadvantages.

12. Check valves, shut-off valves, cartridge valves - types, basic principles, applications, graphical symbols.

13. Directional valves - types, basic principles, applications, graphical symbols.

14. Throttle valves - types, flow equation, basic principles, applications, graphical symbols, characteristics.

15. 2-way and 3-way flow control valves - their purpose, basic principles, applications.

16. Pressure control valves - types, basic principles, applications, graphical symbols.

17. Accumulators - types, basic principles, advantages, and disadvantages.

18. Accumulators - their functions in systems, examples of their applications in hydraulic systems (figures).

19. Filters and filtration technology - filter types, purpose, location in systems.

20. Tanks - purposes, types, heat flow, stabilization circuit (temperature, filtration).

21. Heat exchangers - types, power equations.

22. Pressure intensifiers - their purpose in systems, types, applications, pressure gain.

23. Electrohydraulic components in hydraulic systems - purpose, function, types, characteristics.

24. Basics of pneumatic mechanisms.